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- Metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients: overview, mechanisms, and implications
- The Relationship between Mental Health, Mental Illness and Chronic Physical Conditions
A mental disorder , also called a mental illness  or psychiatric disorder , is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. The causes of mental disorders are often unclear. Theories may incorporate findings from a range of fields.
Mental disorders are usually defined by a combination of how a person behaves, feels, perceives, or thinks. A mental disorder is one aspect of mental health. Cultural and religious beliefs, as well as social norms , should be taken into account when making a diagnosis.
Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community , and assessments are carried out by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and clinical social workers , using various methods such as psychometric tests but often relying on observation and questioning.
Treatments are provided by various mental health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options. Other treatments include lifestyle changes, social interventions, peer support , and self-help. In a minority of cases there might be involuntary detention or treatment. Prevention programs have been shown to reduce depression.
Common mental disorders include depression , which affects about million, bipolar disorder , which affects about 60 million, dementia , which affects about 50 million, and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 23 million people globally. The definition and classification of mental disorders are key issues for researchers as well as service providers and those who may be diagnosed.
For a mental state to classify as a disorder, it generally needs to cause dysfunction. It has been noted that using the term "mental" i. According to DSM-IV , a mental disorder is a psychological syndrome or pattern which is associated with distress e. DSM-IV precedes the definition with caveats, stating that, as in the case with many medical terms, mental disorder "lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all situations", noting that different levels of abstraction can be used for medical definitions, including pathology, symptomology, deviance from a normal range, or etiology, and that the same is true for mental disorders, so that sometimes one type of definition is appropriate, and sometimes another, depending on the situation.
In , the American Psychiatric Association APA redefined mental disorders in the DSM-5 as "a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. The terms "mental breakdown" or "nervous breakdown" may be used by the general population to mean a mental disorder.https://payponfedomemi.tk
Mental illness linked to increased risk of heart disease, stroke
Additionally to the concept of mental disorder, some people have argued for a return to the old-fashioned concept of nervous illness. About half of them are depressed. Or at least that is the diagnosis that they got when they were put on antidepressants. They go to work but they are unhappy and uncomfortable; they are somewhat anxious; they are tired; they have various physical pains—and they tend to obsess about the whole business.
There is a term for what they have, and it is a good old-fashioned term that has gone out of use. They have nerves or a nervous illness. It is an illness not just of mind or brain, but a disorder of the entire body. We have a package here of five symptoms—mild depression, some anxiety, fatigue, somatic pains, and obsessive thinking. We have had nervous illness for centuries. When you are too nervous to function But that term has vanished from medicine, although not from the way we speak.
The nervous patients of yesteryear are the depressives of today. That is the bad news. There is a deeper illness that drives depression and the symptoms of mood. We can call this deeper illness something else, or invent a neologism, but we need to get the discussion off depression and onto this deeper disorder in the brain and body. That is the point.
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In eliminating the nervous breakdown, psychiatry has come close to having its own nervous breakdown. Both of these list categories of disorder and provide standardized criteria for diagnosis. They have deliberately converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant differences remain. Other classification schemes may be used in non-western cultures, for example the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders , and other manuals may be used by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, for example the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual.
In general, mental disorders are classified separately from neurological disorders , learning disabilities or intellectual disability. Unlike the DSM and ICD, some approaches are not based on identifying distinct categories of disorder using dichotomous symptom profiles intended to separate the abnormal from the normal. There is significant scientific debate about the relative merits of categorical versus such non-categorical or hybrid schemes, also known as continuum or dimensional models.
A spectrum approach may incorporate elements of both.
Is there a link between marijuana use and psychiatric disorders?
In the scientific and academic literature on the definition or classification of mental disorder, one extreme argues that it is entirely a matter of value judgements including of what is normal while another proposes that it is or could be entirely objective and scientific including by reference to statistical norms. Some neurologists argue that classification will only be reliable and valid when based on neurobiological features rather than clinical interview, while others suggest that the differing ideological and practical perspectives need to be better integrated.
The DSM and ICD approach remains under attack both because of the implied causality model  and because some researchers believe it better to aim at underlying brain differences which can precede symptoms by many years.
The high degree of comorbidity between disorders in categorical models such as the DSM and ICD have led some to propose dimensional models. Studying comorbidity between disorders have demonstrated two latent unobserved factors or dimensions in the structure of mental disorders that are thought to possibly reflect etiological processes.
These two dimensions reflect a distinction between internalizing disorders, such as mood or anxiety symptoms, and externalizing disorders such as behavioral or substance abuse symptoms. The p factor model supports the internalizing-externalizing distinction, but also supports the formation of a third dimension of thought disorders such as schizophrenia. There are many different categories of mental disorder, and many different facets of human behavior and personality that can become disordered.
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Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, or despair is known as major depression also known as unipolar or clinical depression.
Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Bipolar disorder also known as manic depression involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states, known as mania or hypomania , alternating with normal or depressed moods.
Metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients: overview, mechanisms, and implications
The extent to which unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder, or mix and merge along a dimension or spectrum of mood, is subject to some scientific debate. Patterns of belief, language use and perception of reality can become disordered e.
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Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophrenia , and delusional disorder. Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Schizotypy is a category used for individuals showing some of the characteristics associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cutoff criteria.
The Relationship between Mental Health, Mental Illness and Chronic Physical Conditions
Personality —the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence thoughts and behaviors across situations and time—may be considered disordered if judged to be abnormally rigid and maladaptive. A number of different personality disorders are listed, including those sometimes classed as "eccentric", such as paranoid , schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders; types that have described as "dramatic" or "emotional", such as antisocial , borderline , histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders; and those sometimes classed as fear-related, such as anxious-avoidant , dependent , or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
The personality disorders, in general, are defined as emerging in childhood, or at least by adolescence or early adulthood. The ICD also has a category for enduring personality change after a catastrophic experience or psychiatric illness. If an inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances begins within three months of a particular event or situation, and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated, it may instead be classed as an adjustment disorder.
There is an emerging consensus that so-called "personality disorders", like personality traits in general, actually incorporate a mixture of acute dysfunctional behaviors that may resolve in short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are more enduring. Eating disorders involve disproportionate concern in matters of food and weight.
Sleep disorders such as insomnia involve disruption to normal sleep patterns, or a feeling of tiredness despite sleep appearing normal. Sexual disorders and gender dysphoria may be diagnosed, including dyspareunia and ego-dystonic homosexuality. Various kinds of paraphilia are considered mental disorders sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others.
People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others, may be classed as having an impulse control disorder, and disorders such as kleptomania stealing or pyromania fire-setting. Various behavioral addictions, such as gambling addiction, may be classed as a disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can sometimes involve an inability to resist certain acts but is classed separately as being primarily an anxiety disorder. The use of drugs legal or illegal, including alcohol , when it persists despite significant problems related to its use, may be defined as a mental disorder.
The DSM incorporates such conditions under the umbrella category of substance use disorders , which includes substance dependence and substance abuse.