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My question worked very well because it was precise yet open. I realized that everybody knew what I meant when talking about Laventille, an area which had become synonymous with violence, crime, and gangs. I could talk about the topic of interest without having to directly speak about the "elephant in the room" or use offensive words such as "gang leader" they regard themselves as "community leaders". The kick-off question also allowed them to elaborate on whatever they thought was relevant.

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My interviews with gang members consisted of listening to what they had to share and then following up questions with questions that took us deeper into the conversation. The awareness of ambient risks contributes to developing a conscious strategy of how to minimize or avoid them. Ambient risks of researching gangs relate to gang rivalries and entering territories divided according to invisible borders.

Yet, there is ambivalence between real and perceived risks. The areas where gangs are active are usually considered no-go zones and hot spots of crime and violence. Unfortunately, heavy restrictions on freedom of movement in the deprived areas of Laventille, Beetham, Sea Lots, and Morvant made it very difficult to meet interview partners in these areas.

They refused to leave their territories out of fear of being attacked by a rival gang once they left safe ground. This meant that it was not possible to conduct the interviews in neutral settings.

In such instances, researchers must be willing to enter high-risk territories and face the challenges connected to doing so. I met with gang leaders in different places in their natural environment, where they usually "lime" hang out —for instance, in open staircases of social-housing buildings referred to as plannings , on porches, or outside on walls or plastic chairs, at times with stunning views over the hills of Laventille and the ocean. A gang member I interviewed complained about the media depicting his neighborhood as a "war zone" where people get killed:.

And when they come and see it, it's a different scene to how the media have it! The media have it like a war zone nah and people losing their lives, people just go and kill, but it's not so! From their point of view, the media "intentionally misguides" Interview with gang leader, Port of Spain, Trinidad.

These shows cover all types of recent crime in the country, such as robberies, car accidents, domestic violence, rape, child molestation, murder, white collar crime, organized crime, and gang violence. They help to create the devilish public image of areas such as Laventille and contribute to the fear of the average citizen. Understanding the media culture of the country in which fieldwork takes place can contribute to a more differentiated picture.

In my experience I realized that violence, murder, and other forms of crime were cultivated and featured prominently on Trinidadian media channels, which can be removed from reality. Similarly, a former gang member argued that the media focuses on the negative headlines, which only contributes to the fear of regular citizens. To this end, the media creates an image which is far different from reality, as even those who are involved in crime are not "crazy people" who randomly attack people Interview with ex-gang member, Port of Spain, Trinidad.

He explained that gang members are not mentally ill people who act on a random basis and that the real risks are limited to shootings:. They are not maniacs, they are not mad people, the most dangerous thing they have is when they have a shootout in the community and you are there, a stray bullet you might pick up" Interview with an ex-gang member, Port of Spain, Trinidad. Similarly, another gang leader emphasized the peacefulness in his neighborhood and failed to understand why people from outside of his community are afraid to come and, if they do, why they only come with police escorts:.

Some of the people who come, come here with the police because they are frightened. I don't know what they are frightened for. If they come, they come with lots of police, for no reason! I ask them, why you come with all this police? Their everyday activities are "hanging out," "doing nothing," or "drinking and partying" p. To this end, researchers must evaluate whether they face becoming a collateral damage victim or the direct target of violence.

My analysis of the situation also showed that the communities had been stigmatized for decades. It was a surprise to me that many born-and-raised Trinidadians, including scholars and ministerial workers concerned with security issues, had never set a foot in the areas but bore prejudices against them. In the view of gang members and regular citizens from gang-controlled territories, the Trinidadian society excludes and stigmatizes people from Laventille and its surroundings, treating them as inferior and "paint[ing] them with a broad brush.

In addition to being stigmatized, Laventille is politically, socially, and economically isolated and neglected. A pastor admitted that NGOs and churches have "sold out to the gangs because of fear" Interview with a pastor, Maraval, Trinidad.

Thus gangs have "filled the void" that has been left by society's leaders and politicians. And right now the person who is filling the void that the leaders of society and politicians have left in these areas, are the gangsters. The head of the gang is filling it by giving people money for food, clothes What do you want people to do?

This is the reality! By interviewing gang members, I was able to grasp how they perceived themselves: as victims of capitalism and state corruption and, consequently, as the Robin Hoods of their stigmatized communities. Their frustration with politicians and growing political apathy is based on the perception that the corrupt political elite lives at the expense of Trinidadian society. Political neglect was a common narrative as a major contributing factor to the emergence of crime.

And that's what's going on, sweetie" Interview with a gang leader, Beetham, Trinidad. A leader told me that he grew up in poverty and that politicians steal from society to "get themselves rich" and that "the rich people need to share some of the money":.

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Look at how nice London is! Look at how nice Germany is!

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So why we [our] place can't be nice too with all the money we have in this country? While certain parts of the society in Trinidad and Tobago live in affluence, other parts are deprived of basic needs, such as sanitation infrastructure. During my stay in Trinidad, I noticed a geographical segregation between gated communities with expensive American-styled villas secured by armed private security companies, on the one hand, and the underprivileged neighborhoods of Laventille and the Beetham, the latter sandwiched between highways and a foul-smelling landfill and characterized by wooden sheds and broken houses, on the other.

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And the government hold on to the money. You know they thief [steal]! Everybody thieving this country. I really don't know what they are doing with the money; I can't say" Interview with a gang leader, Laventille, Trinidad. A young "shotta" explained that "the government like [sic] the crime. It have [sic] enough work. It have [sic] enough money to run this country and make everybody feel like somebody to a point. I don't mean like a lavish lifestyle, to buy a boat, car, plane, millions of dollars.

I mean dealing with the family and that" Interview with a gang leader, Beetham, Trinidad. In my interviews I learned that gangs drum up business and jobs for the community through social work programs and government contracts. The role of the gang leader is important as the creation of employment depends on it. Through companies and NGOs, the groups manage to secure funds such as government contracts for infrastructure projects that they can coordinate and which can provide work for their men.

Gangs thus represent the largest "employer" in most stigmatized areas. Conducting interviews in these areas also provided me with the opportunity to observe the social interactions between gangs and community members. I found that gang leaders provide social welfare, food, and financial support to single mothers and poor people and also send children to school.

In their own narrative they were legitimate community leaders. One social worker described them as informal support systems.

Australian Sociology: Fragility, Survival, Rivalry

They were also seen as father figures. And that is what has confirmed and reinforced them in the society. It is serious! Interview partners stated that gangs provide what would be considered social welfare to the poor and financially deprived people. A statement made by a gang leader supports this claim.

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